There have been many studies on antibacterial properties of copper and copper alloys. Most have been in hospital or care home settings and concentrating on bacteria, rather than viruses. Although marketing literature of copper alloys as antimicrobials stresses their use in hospital settings, no hospital relies solely on these surfaces to kill microbes. Continuous sterilisation and disinfection with heat, chemicals and steam is practised where contamination could be an issue. Anti-microbial surfaces are used as supplementary and interim cleaners and to prevent biofilm build-up between disinfections. Time to kill microbes is on the scale of hours, whereas equipment, railings and buttons can be touched every few seconds to minutes.